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PC1 (higher values mean stronger reaction to the playback signal). Designed the study;.B.-A. These two sequences were derived from our recording data bank and were different for each tested dog. The two playback sessions were separated by 12 min of silence. Green triangles: reactions of puppies (aged two to five months brown lozenges: reactions of adult dogs (aged 1348 months). This infant-directed speech has positive aspects in engaging and maintaining attention of babies and facilitating their social interactions with caregivers: infants as young as seven weeks old show a preference for infant-directed speech over adult-directed speech. Next, we performed acoustic analyses using praat 27, and measured the following parameters (see electronic supplementary material, Methods voiced (percentage of the signal that is characterized by a detectable pitch duration (total duration of the recording mean F0, max F0, min F0 (respectively the mean. Dogs have been in close relationships with humans for thousands of years and this intimate proximity is reflected in many aspects of mutual understanding and empathy. Violin plots show the distribution's density and dots are jittered horizontally for better visualization. As a result, nine out of the 10 tested puppies responded more to puppy-directed speech than to human-directed speech, by reacting more quickly, looking more often at the loudspeaker and approaching it closer and for longer periods (Tukey post hoc test on PC1 behavioural score.

Many dogs react to human vocal or gestural signals, and even feelings 20,. The set of three pictures differed between each recorded person.

Five puppies and five adult dogs heard the puppy-directed speech recording first while the other individuals heard the human-directed speech (control) signal first. (Online version in colour.) Table. Livly is designed with exceptional quality and attention 
to detail, and never compromises on either. Performed the recordings and the playback experiments. X -axis recording conditions (directed speech to human adult, puppy, adult and old dog respectively).

C (enes lab agreement, Direction Départementale de la Protection des Populations, Préfecture du Rhône). Data accessibility Additional methods, two figures, six tables and one sound recording are included as the electronic supplementary material. Who's a good boy? Acknowledgements We would like to thank all participants, the Bideawee animal shelter, the owners of the dogs, Nicolas Boyer and Solveig Mouterde. Ah il est gentil le chien. We then assessed the functional value of pet-directed speech by testing if it engages dogs' attention better than speech directed to human adults. Puppies' reactions were strongly influenced by the average pitch of the playback speech sequence: there was a highly significant effect of this acoustic feature on the level of behavioural reaction (LME on PC1 score of puppies with mean pitch and playback order as fixed effects. In the first series of playback experiments, adult dogs responded less strongly to dog-directed speech sequences than puppies did (Tukey post hoc test:.45,.001, N 20 adult dogs and 10 puppies). Ca c'est un gentil chien! Instead of separately analysing the dependent behavioural measures, we rappare dating katy perry performed a principal component analysis and retained a single composite score (PC1 separately for each of the two experiments 28 (electronic supplementary material, Methods).

Furthermore, the functional value of pet-directed speech remains unknown, as, to our knowledge, the assumption that dogs respond more to pet-directed speech than to normal speech has not yet been tested. It is indeed well established that acoustic signals coding for emotional states share similar acoustic features across mammalian species 33 : although interspecific communication may suffer from limitations 34 36, emotion-dependent similarities may derive from shared, ancestral production constraints or reflect convergent evolution in response. (Online version in colour.) Two additional acoustic features significantly correlated with puppies' reaction to playback, albeit to a lesser extent than pitch: the percentage of the signal that is characterized by a detectable pitch (voiced) and the harmonicity (harm) (electronic supplementary material, table S6 and. The experiments were performed at the Bideawee animal shelter in Manhattan, NY (USA between December 2015 and March 2016. The fact that speakers continue to use dog-directed with older dogs therefore suggests that this speech pattern may mainly be a spontaneous attempt to facilitate interactions with non-verbal listeners. (b) Playback experiments to dogs We performed playbacks to domestic dogs Canis familiaris to test (i) whether puppy-directed speech is more effective than human-directed speech in engaging a dog's attention, and if this effectiveness varies with dog's age, and (ii) whether puppy-directed speech is more. The two playback trials were separated by 12 min of silence, as the second playback was conducted once the dog had stopped displaying interest towards the speaker for at least 1 min. The aim of this study was thus to investigate whether the age of the dog receiver modulates the use and the properties of pet-directed speech.

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